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Ingredients S - Z

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Sage essential oil or Salvia officinalis
It is derived from the leaves of the plant.
Properties: antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, stimulant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antifungal, astringent, tonic.

Seaweed extract/ Kelp
Scientific name: Ecklonia maxima
Properties: humectant, very nutritious due to their protein, vitamin, mineral and sterol content, rich in essential and non essential amino acids – which act in as moisturisers to the skin, helping maintain the skin’s elasticity and hydration, antioxidant and many other properties.

Sesame oil or Sesamum indicum
Scientific name: Sesamum indicum.
Properties: well known antioxidant, contains vitamins A and E, most B Vitamins, except B12 and Folic Acid. Also contains potassium, calcium, zinc & other trace minerals, as well as Essential Fatty Acids. Applied to skin it is emollient & helps prevent excessive moisture loss. Also good for drawing out pus from boils, helping to resolve infection.

Spearmint essential oil
Scientific & other names: Mentha spicata, Mentha viridis, common spearmint, garden spearmint, spire mint, green mint, lamb mint, pea mint, fish mint
Properties: anaesthetic, antiseptic, astringent, decongestant, stimulant, tonic.
Skin uses: acne, dermatitis, congested skin.

Stinging nettle
Scientific name: Urtica dioica
It is derived from aerial roots, gathered before flowering.
Properties: antiseptic, astringent, blood tonic, diuretic, circulation, important source of minerals, clears uric acid. They are an excellent nutrient, as they are able to “rob the soil” and concentrate vitamins and minerals in their leaves. Benefits skin conditions such as eczema, acne.

Styrax benzoin
Common names: Gum benzoin (gum benzoin, gum Benjamin, styrax benzoin, benzoin).
Derived from the resin that is collected from the trees directly.
Properties: anti-inflammatory, soothing, antioxidant, antiseptic, astringent, cordial (a stimulant and tonic), warming, deodorant, sedative, styptic (an astringent agent that stops or reduces external bleeding) vulnerary (helps heal wounds and sores by external application).
Skin care: cuts, chapped skin, inflamed and irritated conditions. Psychologically - soothing, warming & stimulating. Used as a preservative in creams and ointments and as a skin protective.

Sublimed sulphur
Common name: Flowers of sulphur
The best natural sources are dried beans, eggs & cabbage
Properties: essential for healthy skin, hair and nails. Antibacterial, mild antiseptic, mild antifungal, useful in skin care, acne, fungal infections, for greasy or oily skin.

Tannic acid
Other name: Tannin
Derived from tea (It occurs in the bark and fruit of many plants, notably in the bark of the oak, sumac, cherry, coffee and tea)
Properties: astringent, antiviral, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, used in sunscreen preparations, eye lotions and antiperspirants. Used medicinally as a mild astringent, for burns and wound healing.

Tartaric acid
Common names: Grape acid, Fruit acids; Scientific names: Alpha hydroxy acids
Derived from Grapes
Properties: an antioxidant, skin exfoliator, skin cleanser, to manage acne.

Tea tree essential oil
Scientific name: Melaleuca alternifolia.
Derived from leaves and twigs
Properties: antibacterial, antifungal, antiseptic, antiviral, antibiotic, anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, balsamic, cicatrizant (promotes healing by the formation of scar tissue), immuno-stimulant, parasiticide, vulnerary (heals wounds and sores by external application).
Skin uses: abscesses, acne, athlete’s foot, blisters, burns, cold sores, dandruff, herpes, insect bites, oily skin, rashes, spots, veruccae, warts, wounds.

Thyme essential oil
Scientific & other names: Thymus vulgaris (T. aestivus, T. ilerdensis, T. webbianus, T. valentianus, French thyme, garden thyme, red thyme (oil), white thyme (oil))
Properties: Antimicrobial, antibiotic, antiseptic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiputrescent, antiseptic, antitoxic, astringent, antibacterial, balsamic, cicatrizant (promotes healing through the formation of scar tissue), antispasmodic, rubefacient, parasiticide, stimulant, tonic. It stimulates the production of white corpuscles, so strengthening the body’s resistance to invading organisms
Skin uses: Abscesses, acne, bruises, burns, cuts, dermatitis, eczema, insect bites, lice, gum infections, oily skin, scabies.

Thymus vulgaris
Scientific & other names: Thymus aestivus, T. ilerdensis, T. webbianus, T. valentianus, Thyme essential oil, French thyme, garden thyme, red thyme (oil), white thyme (oil))
Properties: Antimicrobial, antibiotic, antiseptic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiputrescent, antiseptic, antitoxic, astringent, antibacterial, balsamic, cicatrizant (promotes healing through the formation of scar tissue), antispasmodic, rubefacient, parasiticide, stimulant, tonic. It stimulates the production of white corpuscles, so strengthening the body’s resistance to invading organisms.
Skin uses: Abscesses, acne, bruises, burns, cuts, dermatitis, eczema, insect bites, lice, gum infections, oily skin, scabies.

Titanium dioxide
Natural mineral
Properties: reflects ultraviolet rays and is used in sunscreen, greatest covering and tinting power of any white pigment used in bath powders, nail whites, depilatories, eye liners, face powders, protective creams and hand lotions. Occurs naturally in three different crystal forms. Used chiefly as a white pigment and as an opacifier.

Tocopherol
Common name: Vitamin E
Best natural sources: wheat germ, soya beans, vegetable oils, broccoli, brussel sprouts, leafy greens, spinach, enriched flour, whole wheat, whole grain cereals, eggs
Facts: fat soluble, stored in the liver, fatty tissues, heart, muscles, testes, uterus, blood, adrenal and pituitary glands. An active antioxidant, prevents oxidation of fat compounds as well as that of Vitamin A, selenium, two sulphur amino acids, and some Vitamin C. Enhances activity of Vitamin A. Vitamin E is stored in the body for a relatively short time, much like B & C.Properties: keeping you looking younger by retarding cellular ageing due to oxidation; supply oxygen to the body to give you more endurance; protect your lungs against air pollution by working with Vitamin A; prevent thick scar formation externally (when applied topically it can be absorbed through the skin) and internally; accelerate healing of burns and wounds; works as a diuretic, protects skin from sunburn, dermatitis, UV damage, wrinkles; reduces skin’s sebum production; anti-inflammatory.

Tyrosine
Scientific & other names: L-tyrosine, tyrosinum, A non essential amino acid
Can be found in eggs, dairy, grains and beans.
Properties: It is a building block of protein and is used in cosmetics to help creams penetrate the skin. Copper makes tyrosine usable – allowing it to work as a pigmenting factor for the skin and hair. It is used in sun bronzing products.

Urtica dioica
Common name: Stinging nettle
Derived from aerial roots, gathered before flowering
Properties: antiseptic, astringent, blood tonic, diuretic, circulation, important source of minerals, clears uric acid. They are an excellent nutrient, as they are able to “rob the soil” and concentrate vitamins and minerals in their leaves. Benefits skin conditions such as eczema, acne.

Vitamin A palmitate
Scientific name: Retinyl palmitate
Best natural sources: carrots, green and yellow vegetables, eggs, milk and dairy products, margarine and yellow fruits.
Properties: Keeps outer layers of tissues and organs healthy; promotes growth, strong bones, healthy skin, hair, teeth and gums; helps remove age spots; helps treat acne, impetigo, boils, carbuncles, and open ulcers when applied externally. Vitamin A helps stop Vitamin C from oxidising (antioxidant). It is oil soluble.

Vitamin B2
Scientific name: Riboflavin
Best natural sources: Milk, yeast, cheese, leafy green vegetables, eggs.
Facts: Water soluble, easily absorbed. The amount excreted depends on bodily needs and may be accompanied by protein loss. Like the other B vitamins, it is not stored and must be replaced regularly through whole foods and supplements. Also known as Vitamin G. Necessary for the functioning of Vitamin B6.
Properties: Promotes healthy skin, nails & hair, helps eliminate sore mouth, lips & tongue.

Vitamin B6
Scientific name: Pyridoxine
Best natural sources: brewers yeast, wheat bran, wheat germ, cantaloupe, cabbage, blackstrap molasses, milk, eggs
Facts: water soluble. Excreted within 8 hours after ingestion and like the other B vitamins needs to be replaced by whole foods or supplements. Required for proper absorption of Vitamin B12
Properties: help prevent various nervous and skin disorders, promote proper synthesis of anti-ageing nucleic acids, work as a natural diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant.

Vitamin C and Vitamin C palmitate
Scientific names: Ascorbic acid, Cevitamin acid; Ascorbyl palmitate
Best natural sources: Citrus fruits, berries, green and leafy vegetables, tomatoes, cauliflower, potatoes and sweet potatoes.
Facts: Vitamin C is water soluble, Vitamin C palmitate is oil soluble, plays a primary role in the formation of collagen, which is important for the growth and repair of body tissue cells, gums, blood vessels, bones and teeth, helps on the body’s absorption of iron
Properties: heal wounds, burns & bleeding gums; accelerate healing, aid in preventing many types of viral and bacterial infections, extend life by enabling protein cells to hold together, reduce effects of many allergy producing substances, stimulates collagen production, decrease infections by 25%, antioxidant, topical application can reduce fine lines and wrinkles, protect against oxidative effects of pollutants and may lessen the severity of sunburn.

Vitamin E
Scientific name: Tocopherol
Best natural sources: wheat germ, soya beans, vegetable oils, broccoli, brussel sprouts, leafy greens, spinach, enriched flour, whole wheat, whole grain cereals, eggs
Facts: fat soluble, stored in the liver, fatty tissues, heart, muscles, testes, uterus, blood, adrenal and pituitary glands. An active antioxidant, prevents oxidation of fat compounds as well as that of Vitamin A, selenium, two sulphur amino acids, and some Vitamin C. Enhances activity of Vitamin A. Vitamin E is stored in the body for a relatively short time, much like B & C.Properties: keeping you looking younger by retarding cellular ageing due to oxidation; supply oxygen to the body to give you more endurance; protect your lungs against air pollution by working with Vitamin A; prevent thick scar formation externally (when applied topically it can be absorbed through the skin) and internally; accelerate healing of burns and wounds; works as a diuretic, protects skin from sunburn, dermatitis, UV damage, wrinkles; reduces skin’s sebum production; anti–inflammatory.

Water
Scientific name: Aqua
Best natural sources: drinking water, juices, fruits and vegetables
Facts: our most important nutrient, essential for removing wastes (therefore very important for the skin), regulates body temperature
Properties: keep all your bodily functions functioning.

Witch hazel
Scientific name: Hamamelis virginiana
Derived from bark
Properties: astringent, anti-inflammatory, styptic, first aid remedy for bruises, sprains, nosebleeds, cuts and grazes and swellings; can soothe spots and blemishes, and is helpful to ease varicose veins. It is the best natural astringent for oily or problem skin, temporarily reducing the appearance of large pores. It is a good antiseptic.

Ylang ylang essential oil
Scientific & other names: Cananga odorata var. genuine (Unona odorantissimum, flower of flowers)
Derived from freshly picked flowers.
Actions: Antidepressant, anti-infectious, antiseborrheic (controls the production of sebum), balancing, antiseptic, euphoric, regulator (helps balance and regulate the functions of the body), stimulant, tonic, calming, uplifting, protects, nourishes and softens the skin.
Skin care: Acne, hair growth, hair rinse, insect bites, irritated, dry and oily skin (as it has a balancing action on the secretion of sebum), general skin care.

Zinc: See Colloidal zinc
Scientific name: Zinc picolinate

Zinc oxide
Mildly astringent, soothing, protective, used for eczema, and in wound healing. Reflects UV rays, therefore used as a natural sunscreen.

Zingiber officinalis
Common names: Ginger essential oil, ginger, Jamaica gingerderived from the root
Properties: antioxidant, analgesic, antiseptic, bactericidal, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, circulatory stimulant, rubefacient, tonic. Used for poor circulation, it is an antioxidant and it destroys bacteria.

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